Hafnium

72
Hf
Kumpulan
4
Kala
6
Blok
d
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
72
72
106
Ciri-Ciri Am
Nombor atom
72
Berat atom
178.49
Nombor jisim
178
Kategori
Logam peralihan
Warna
Kelabu
Radioaktif
Tidak
From Hafinia, the Latin name for Copenhagen
Struktur hablur
Hexagonal Ringkas
Sejarah
In 1911, Georges Urbain claimed to have found the element in rare-earth residues which was shown later to be a mixture of already discovered lanthanides.

Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy found it by X-ray spectroscopic analysis in Norwegian zircon in 1922.

Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer were the first to prepare metallic hafnium by passing hafnium tetra-iodide vapor over a heated tungsten filament in 1924.
Bilangan elektron per petala
2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
Konfigurasi elektron
[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
Hf
In powdered form, hafnium is pyrophoric and can ignite spontaneously in air
Ciri-Ciri Fizikal
Fasa
Pepejal
Ketumpatan
13.31 g/cm3
Takat lebur
2506.15 K | 2233 °C | 4051.4 °F
Takat didih
4876.15 K | 4603 °C | 8317.4 °F
Haba pelakuran
25.5 kJ/mol
Haba pengewapan
630 kJ/mol
Muatan haba molar
0.144 J/g·K
Banyak pada kerak bumi
0.00033%
Banyak pada alam semesta
7×10-8%
Electrolytic
Kredit imej: Images-of-elements
Electrolytic hafnium
Nombor CAS
7440-58-6
PubChem CID Number
23986
Ciri-Ciri Atom
Jejari atom
159 pm
Jejari kovalen
175 pm
Keelektronegatifan
1.3 (Skala Pauling)
Kebolehan mengion
6.8251 eV
Isipadu atom
13.6 cm3/mol
Daya pengaliran terma
0.23 W/cm·K
Keadaan pengoksidaan
2, 3, 4
Aplikasi
Hafnium oxide-based compounds are being introduced into silicon-based chips to produce smaller, more energy efficient and performance packed processors.

Most of the hafnium produced is used in the production of control rods for nuclear reactors.

Hafnium is also used in photographic flash bulbs, light bulb filaments, and in electronic equipment as cathodes and capacitors.
Hafnium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotop
Isotop stabil
176Hf, 177Hf, 178Hf, 179Hf, 180Hf
Isotop tidak stabil
153Hf, 154Hf, 155Hf, 156Hf, 157Hf, 158Hf, 159Hf, 160Hf, 161Hf, 162Hf, 163Hf, 164Hf, 165Hf, 166Hf, 167Hf, 168Hf, 169Hf, 170Hf, 171Hf, 172Hf, 173Hf, 174Hf, 175Hf, 181Hf, 182Hf, 183Hf, 184Hf, 185Hf, 186Hf, 187Hf, 188Hf