Germanium

32
Ge
Kumpulan
14
Kala
4
Blok
p
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
32
32
41
Ciri-Ciri Am
Nombor atom
32
Berat atom
72.63
Nombor jisim
73
Kategori
Metaloid
Warna
Kelabu
Radioaktif
Tidak
From the Latin word Germania, Germany
Struktur hablur
Pusat Wajah Kubik
Sejarah
In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties based on its position on his periodic table and called the element eka-silicon.

In 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite.

The first silicon-germanium alloys were obtained in 1955.
Bilangan elektron per petala
2, 8, 18, 4
Konfigurasi elektron
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Ge
Germanium and the oxide are transparent to infrared radiation
Ciri-Ciri Fizikal
Fasa
Pepejal
Ketumpatan
5.323 g/cm3
Takat lebur
1211.4 K | 938.25 °C | 1720.85 °F
Takat didih
3106.15 K | 2833 °C | 5131.4 °F
Haba pelakuran
31.8 kJ/mol
Haba pengewapan
334 kJ/mol
Muatan haba molar
0.32 J/g·K
Banyak pada kerak bumi
0.00014%
Banyak pada alam semesta
0.00002%
Ultrapure
Kredit imej: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure chunk of polycrystalline germanium
Nombor CAS
7440-56-4
PubChem CID Number
6326954
Ciri-Ciri Atom
Jejari atom
122 pm
Jejari kovalen
122 pm
Keelektronegatifan
2.01 (Skala Pauling)
Kebolehan mengion
7.8994 eV
Isipadu atom
13.6 cm3/mol
Daya pengaliran terma
0.599 W/cm·K
Keadaan pengoksidaan
-4, 1, 2, 3, 4
Aplikasi
The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor in electronics.

Germanium is used in transistors and in integrated circuits.

It is used as an alloying agent and as a catalyst.

It is also used in infrared spectroscopes and infrared detectors.
Germanium is not known to be toxic
Isotop
Isotop stabil
70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge
Isotop tidak stabil
58Ge, 59Ge, 60Ge, 61Ge, 62Ge, 63Ge, 64Ge, 65Ge, 66Ge, 67Ge, 68Ge, 69Ge, 71Ge, 75Ge, 76Ge, 77Ge, 78Ge, 79Ge, 80Ge, 81Ge, 82Ge, 83Ge, 84Ge, 85Ge, 86Ge, 87Ge, 88Ge, 89Ge