Galium

31
Ga
Kumpulan
13
Kala
4
Blok
p
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
31
31
39
Ciri-Ciri Am
Nombor atom
31
Berat atom
69.723
Nombor jisim
70
Kategori
Logam lemah
Warna
Perak
Radioaktif
Tidak
From the Latin word Gallia, France; also from Latin, gallus, a translation of Lecoq, a cock
Struktur hablur
Pusat Tapak Orthorhombic
Sejarah
In 1871, existence of gallium was first predicted by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev and called the element eka-aluminum.

Gallium was discovered spectroscopically by French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875 by its characteristic spectrum in an examination of a sphalerite sample.

Later that year, Lecoq obtained the free metal by electrolysis of its hydroxide in potassium hydroxide solution.
Bilangan elektron per petala
2, 8, 18, 3
Konfigurasi elektron
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Ga
Gallium has a strong tendency to supercool below its melting point / freezing point
Ciri-Ciri Fizikal
Fasa
Pepejal
Ketumpatan
5.907 g/cm3
Takat lebur
302.91 K | 29.76 °C | 85.57 °F
Takat didih
2477.15 K | 2204 °C | 3999.2 °F
Haba pelakuran
5.59 kJ/mol
Haba pengewapan
256 kJ/mol
Muatan haba molar
0.371 J/g·K
Banyak pada kerak bumi
0.0019%
Banyak pada alam semesta
1×10-6%
Crystals
Kredit imej: Wikimedia Commons (Foobar)
Crystals of gallium
Nombor CAS
7440-55-3
PubChem CID Number
5360835
Ciri-Ciri Atom
Jejari atom
135 pm
Jejari kovalen
122 pm
Keelektronegatifan
1.81 (Skala Pauling)
Kebolehan mengion
5.9993 eV
Isipadu atom
11.8 cm3/mol
Daya pengaliran terma
0.406 W/cm·K
Keadaan pengoksidaan
1, 2, 3
Aplikasi
Gallium wets glass or porcelain and forms a brilliant mirror when it is painted on glass.

It is widely used in doping semiconductors and producing solid-state devices such as transistors.

Low melting gallium alloys are used in some medical thermometers as non-toxic substitutes for mercury.

Gallium arsenide is capable of converting electricity directly into coherent light.
Gallium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotop
Isotop stabil
69Ga, 71Ga
Isotop tidak stabil
56Ga, 57Ga, 58Ga, 59Ga, 60Ga, 61Ga, 62Ga, 63Ga, 64Ga, 65Ga, 66Ga, 67Ga, 68Ga, 70Ga, 72Ga, 73Ga, 74Ga, 75Ga, 76Ga, 77Ga, 78Ga, 79Ga, 80Ga, 81Ga, 82Ga, 83Ga, 84Ga, 85Ga, 86Ga