Rutenium

44
Ru
Kumpulan
8
Kala
5
Blok
d
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
44
44
57
Ciri-Ciri Am
Nombor atom
44
Berat atom
101.07
Nombor jisim
101
Kategori
Logam peralihan
Warna
Perak
Radioaktif
Tidak
From the Latin word Ruthenia, Russia
Struktur hablur
Hexagonal Ringkas
Sejarah
Jędrzej Śniadecki isolated the element in 1807, but his work was not ratified.

Jöns Berzelius and Gottfried Osann nearly discovered ruthenium in 1827.

In 1844, Karl Ernst Claus confirmed that there was a new element and isolated ruthenium from the platinum residues of the rouble production while he was working in Kazan University, Kazan.
Bilangan elektron per petala
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Konfigurasi elektron
[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Ru
Ruthenium is unaffected by air, water and acids
Ciri-Ciri Fizikal
Fasa
Pepejal
Ketumpatan
12.37 g/cm3
Takat lebur
2607.15 K | 2334 °C | 4233.2 °F
Takat didih
4423.15 K | 4150 °C | 7502 °F
Haba pelakuran
25.7 kJ/mol
Haba pengewapan
580 kJ/mol
Muatan haba molar
0.238 J/g·K
Banyak pada kerak bumi
9.9×10-8%
Banyak pada alam semesta
4×10-7%
Gas
Kredit imej: Wikimedia Commons (Periodictableru)
Gas phase grown crystals of ruthenium metal
Nombor CAS
7440-18-8
PubChem CID Number
23950
Ciri-Ciri Atom
Jejari atom
134 pm
Jejari kovalen
146 pm
Keelektronegatifan
2.2 (Skala Pauling)
Kebolehan mengion
7.3605 eV
Isipadu atom
8.3 cm3/mol
Daya pengaliran terma
1.17 W/cm·K
Keadaan pengoksidaan
-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Aplikasi
Ruthenium is used in platinum and palladium alloys to make wear-resistant electrical contacts.

Ruthenium dioxide and lead and bismuth ruthenates are used in thick-film chip resistors.

Fountain pen nibs are frequently tipped with alloys containing ruthenium.

Ruthenium is a versatile catalyst.
Ruthenium is a suspected carcinogen and its compounds strongly stain the skin
Isotop
Isotop stabil
96Ru, 98Ru, 99Ru, 100Ru, 101Ru, 102Ru, 104Ru
Isotop tidak stabil
87Ru, 88Ru, 89Ru, 90Ru, 91Ru, 92Ru, 93Ru, 94Ru, 95Ru, 97Ru, 103Ru, 105Ru, 106Ru, 107Ru, 108Ru, 109Ru, 110Ru, 111Ru, 112Ru, 113Ru, 114Ru, 115Ru, 116Ru, 117Ru, 118Ru, 119Ru, 120Ru