Thulium

69
Tm
Kumpulan
Tiada
Kala
6
Blok
f
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
69
69
100
Ciri-Ciri Am
Nombor atom
69
Berat atom
168.93421
Nombor jisim
169
Kategori
Lantanid
Warna
Perak
Radioaktif
Tidak
Named after Thule, the earliest name for Scandinavia
Struktur hablur
Hexagonal Ringkas
Sejarah
Thulium was discovered by Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve in 1879 by looking for impurities in the oxides of other rare earth elements.

The first researcher to obtain nearly pure thulium was Charles James, a British expatriate working on a large scale at New Hampshire College in Durham.

High-purity thulium oxide was first offered commercially in the late 1950s.
Bilangan elektron per petala
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
Konfigurasi elektron
[Xe] 4f13 6s2
Tm
Thulium ore occurs most commonly in China
Ciri-Ciri Fizikal
Fasa
Pepejal
Ketumpatan
9.321 g/cm3
Takat lebur
1818.15 K | 1545 °C | 2813 °F
Takat didih
2223.15 K | 1950 °C | 3542 °F
Haba pelakuran
16.8 kJ/mol
Haba pengewapan
250 kJ/mol
Muatan haba molar
0.16 J/g·K
Banyak pada kerak bumi
0.000045%
Banyak pada alam semesta
1×10-8%
Ultrapure
Kredit imej: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure crystalline thulium
Nombor CAS
7440-30-4
PubChem CID Number
23961
Ciri-Ciri Atom
Jejari atom
176 pm
Jejari kovalen
190 pm
Keelektronegatifan
1.25 (Skala Pauling)
Kebolehan mengion
6.1843 eV
Isipadu atom
18.1 cm3/mol
Daya pengaliran terma
0.168 W/cm·K
Keadaan pengoksidaan
2, 3
Aplikasi
Thulium is used to dope yttrium aluminum garnets used in lasers.

It has also been used in high-temperature superconductors similarly to yttrium.

Thulium has use in ferrites, ceramic magnetic materials that are used in microwave equipment.

Thulium is used in euro banknotes for its blue fluorescence under UV light to defeat counterfeiters.
Thulium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotop
Isotop stabil
169Tm
Isotop tidak stabil
145Tm, 146Tm, 147Tm, 148Tm, 149Tm, 150Tm, 151Tm, 152Tm, 153Tm, 154Tm, 155Tm, 156Tm, 157Tm, 158Tm, 159Tm, 160Tm, 161Tm, 162Tm, 163Tm, 164Tm, 165Tm, 166Tm, 167Tm, 168Tm, 170Tm, 171Tm, 172Tm, 173Tm, 174Tm, 175Tm, 176Tm, 177Tm, 178Tm, 179Tm