Fosforus

15
P
Kumpulan
15
Kala
3
Blok
p
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
15
15
16
Ciri-Ciri Am
Nombor atom
15
Berat atom
30.973762
Nombor jisim
31
Kategori
Bukan logam
Warna
Tidak berwarna
Radioaktif
Tidak
From the Greek phosphoros, light bearing; ancient name for the planet Venus when appearing before sunrise
Struktur hablur
Triclinic Ringkas
Sejarah
Hennig Brand discovered phosphorus in 1669, in Hamburg, Germany, preparing it from urine.

In 1769, Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate is found in bones, and they obtained elemental phosphorus from bone ash.

Antoine Lavoisier recognized phosphorus as an element in 1777.
Bilangan elektron per petala
2, 8, 5
Konfigurasi elektron
[Ne] 3s2 3p3
P
Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms - white phosphorus and red phosphorus
Ciri-Ciri Fizikal
Fasa
Pepejal
Ketumpatan
1.82 g/cm3
Takat lebur
317.25 K | 44.1 °C | 111.38 °F
Takat didih
553 K | 279.85 °C | 535.73 °F
Haba pelakuran
0.64 kJ/mol
Haba pengewapan
12.4 kJ/mol
Muatan haba molar
0.769 J/g·K
Banyak pada kerak bumi
0.099%
Banyak pada alam semesta
0.0007%
Red
Kredit imej: Images-of-elements
Red phosphorus as powder
Nombor CAS
7723-14-0
PubChem CID Number
5462309
Ciri-Ciri Atom
Jejari atom
98 pm
Jejari kovalen
107 pm
Keelektronegatifan
2.19 (Skala Pauling)
Kebolehan mengion
10.4867 eV
Isipadu atom
17.0 cm3/mol
Daya pengaliran terma
0.00235 W/cm·K
Keadaan pengoksidaan
-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Aplikasi
Many fertilisers contain a high proportion of phosphorus and are manufactured from concentrated phosphoric acids.

Phosphorus is used in the manufacture of safety matches, pyrotechnics and incendiary shells.

Phosphorus is also used in steel manufacture and in the production of phosphor bronze.
White phosphorus is highly toxic while red phosphorus is considered non-toxic
Isotop
Isotop stabil
31P
Isotop tidak stabil
24P, 25P, 26P, 27P, 28P, 29P, 30P, 32P, 33P, 34P, 35P, 36P, 37P, 38P, 39P, 40P, 41P, 42P, 43P, 44P, 45P, 46P