Karbon

6
C
Kumpulan
14
Kala
2
Blok
p
Proton
Elektron
Neutron
6
6
6
Ciri-Ciri Am
Nombor atom
6
Berat atom
12.0107
Nombor jisim
12
Kategori
Bukan logam
Warna
Hitam
Radioaktif
Tidak
Daripada perkataan Latin carbo, arang
Struktur hablur
Hexagonal Ringkas
Sejarah
Carbon was discovered in prehistory and was known in the forms of soot and charcoal to the earliest human civilizations.

In 1772, Antoine Lavoisier showed that diamonds are a form of carbon; when he burned samples of charcoal and diamond and found that neither produced any water.

In 1779, Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that graphite burned to form carbon dioxide and so must be another form of carbon.
Bilangan elektron per petala
2, 4
Konfigurasi elektron
[He] 2s2 2p2
C
About 20% of the weight of living organisms is carbon
Ciri-Ciri Fizikal
Fasa
Pepejal
Ketumpatan
2.267 g/cm3
Takat lebur
3948.15 K | 3675 °C | 6647 °F
Takat didih
4300.15 K | 4027 °C | 7280.6 °F
Haba pelakuran
105 kJ/mol
Haba pengewapan
715 kJ/mol
Muatan haba molar
0.709 J/g·K
Banyak pada kerak bumi
0.18%
Banyak pada alam semesta
0.5%
Ultrapure
Kredit imej: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure carbon as graphite
Nombor CAS
7440-44-0
PubChem CID Number
5462310
Ciri-Ciri Atom
Jejari atom
67 pm
Jejari kovalen
77 pm
Keelektronegatifan
2.55 (Skala Pauling)
Kebolehan mengion
11.2603 eV
Isipadu atom
5.31 cm3/mol
Daya pengaliran terma
1.29 W/cm·K
Keadaan pengoksidaan
-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Aplikasi
The major use of carbon other than food and wood is in the form of hydrocarbons, most notably the fossil fuel methane gas and crude oil.

Graphite is used for pencil tips, high temperature crucibles, dry cells, electrodes and as a lubricant.

Diamonds are used in jewelry and in industry for cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing.

Carbon black is used as the black pigment in printing ink.
Pure carbon has extremely low toxicity to humans and can be handled safely in the form of graphite or charcoal
Isotop
Isotop stabil
12C, 13C
Isotop tidak stabil
8C, 9C, 10C, 11C, 14C, 15C, 16C, 17C, 18C, 19C, 20C, 21C, 22C